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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-June 2019
Volume 6 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-66

Online since Thursday, June 13, 2019

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REVIEW ARTICLES  

Histopathological approach to cutaneous lymphoid infiltrate Highly accessed article p. 1
Uma Nahar Saikia, Manoj Gopal Madakshira
DOI:10.4103/ijdpdd.ijdpdd_25_19  
Cutaneous lymphoid infiltration is common histology seen in the day-to-day practice of dermatopathology. The reasons for this infiltration can range from a spontaneously remitting pseudolymphoma such as Jessner's infiltration to a sinister and aggressive cytotoxic T-cell lymphoma. Before analyzing the slide, the clinical perspective needs to be borne in mind as a diagnosis can never be made in isolation, especially in dermatopathology. In this article, we discuss in brief the various common cutaneous lymphoid infiltrative entities encountered in routine practice, discuss the differentiating features, and suggest an algorithmic approach to arrive at the possible diagnosis.
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“Interface” Dermatoses: Revisited Highly accessed article p. 14
Sasi Kiran Attili
DOI:10.4103/ijdpdd.ijdpdd_17_19  
“Interface dermatoses” are defined as inflammatory dermatoses primarily affecting the interface elements along the dermoepidermal junction, resulting in epidermal basal cell damage. This epidermal basal cell damage can be of two forms: vacuolar/hydropic degeneration and filamentous degeneration (resulting in Civatte bodies). This may be associated with a range of secondary epidermal (atrophy to hypertrophy) and dermal changes (varying from simple effacement of the rete ridges to the diffuse dermal fibrosis/sclerosis). With so many variables, “Interface dermatitis” per se is not a diagnosis by itself but simply a reaction pattern, similar to “psoriasiform dermatitis” or “spongiotic dermatitis.” One should never use these terms as the final sign out diagnosis in reports, though in difficult cases one may allude to the reaction pattern and discuss the possible differentials. This article analyzes and discusses in detail, the basic pathogenesis behind the primary/secondary features associated with interface dermatoses and the steps involved in their histopathological evaluation; thorough knowledge of which may help one arrive at a specific diagnosis.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

A clinicopathological study of facial granulomatous dermatoses: A hospital-based study Highly accessed article p. 25
Mahesh Mathur, Alina Karki, Prakash Acharya, Ayush Jha
DOI:10.4103/ijdpdd.ijdpdd_51_18  
Background: Granulomatous dermatoses of various types, etiologies, and clinical features frequently present with similar clinicopathological features which create a dilemma and diagnostic challenge for experts. Early diagnosis of facial lesions is of prime concern due to potential social stigma and psychological stress because of cosmetic disfigurement. Objective: To study the epidemiological and clinicopathological features of various granulomatous facial skin lesions and their concordance rate. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, hospital-based study was carried out at the Department of Dermatology, College of Medical Sciences, Bharatpur, over a period of 5 years (January 2013–January 2018). All clinically suspected cases of facial granulomatous dermatoses were included, their clinical and histological findings were recorded and analyzed according to the standard protocol, and a clinicopathological correlation was ascertained. Results: Among 850 skin biopsies performed during the study, 30 cases were clinically suspected as facial granulomatous dermatoses. There was female predominance (n = 22, 73.33%), and the mean age of patients was 41.7 years. Majority of cases (n = 29, 96.66%) were of infectious origin with leprosy as predominant cause (n = 25, 83.33%), followed by cutaneous tuberculosis (n = 4, 13.33%). Histologically, epithelioid cell granulomas (n = 26, 86.67%) and histiocytic granuloma (n = 3, 10%) were observed. Fite Faraco stain was positive in 6 (20%) cases of leprosy. An overall concordance rate of 80% was observed in facial granulomatous dermatoses in our study. Conclusion: In our study, infectious etiology is the most common cause of facial granulomatous dermatoses. Among infections, leprosy is the most common.
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Evaluation of the relation between T-Lymphocytes (CD4 + ve and CD8 + ve) and pemphigus vulgaris pathogenesis and severity p. 30
Samia Mohamed El-Said Abd El-Naby, Maha Mohamed Amin, Manar Ali Hassan Ali, Mohammad A Gaballah
DOI:10.4103/ijdpdd.ijdpdd_70_18  
Background: Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune bullous disease involving both the skin and mucus membranes. Infiltrating CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes may have a vital role in its pathogenesis. The autoimmune bullous skin disorder intensity score (ABSIS) was proposed for clinical evaluation and scoring of PV patients. Aims and Objectives: This work aimed to assess the role of CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of PV and the correlation between number of T-lymphocytes infiltrate and clinical severity of the disease evaluated by ABSIS. Patients and Methods: Forty PV patients (patient group) and 10 healthy volunteers (control group) were enrolled. All patients were scored by ABSIS. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on skin biopsies for IgG, IgA, CD8, and CD4. Results: IgG was positive in 97.5% of patients, combined IgG and IgA were positive in 20% of patients, and only one case was negative for both antibodies. Thirty-three cases showed the predominance of CD4+ T cells, and seven cases showed predominance of CD8+ T cells. CD4/CD8 ratio was 2.578. Non-significant positive correlation was found between the total count of lymphocytic infiltrate and ABSIS. Conclusion: CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes share in the pathogenesis of PV and CD4+ are more expressed than CD8+ in the inflammatory infiltrate of PV lesions. The correlation between total lymphocytic count and ABSIS score may help to predict the clinical state of the patient from skin biopsy, and ABSIS score can predict the lymphocytic infiltration in PV cases. This correlation is in need to be reapplied on larger scales of patients to confirm its validity and reliability.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Early-onset epithelioid angiosarcoma: Diagnostic enigma, a rare case report p. 36
Kanathur Shilpa, B Leelavathy, Divya Gorur, Dayanand Biligi
DOI:10.4103/ijdpdd.ijdpdd_58_18  
Epithelioid angiosarcoma (AS) is a rare vascular tumor affecting more commonly men in their seventh decade. We are reporting a case of epithelioid AS affecting a male patient in his third decade. He presented with a well-defined ulcerated plaque with an elevated border on the scalp. Histopathology showed sheets of epithelioid cells infiltrating the dermis, formation of slit-like vascular spaces, and cellular atypia. Immunohistochemistry showed positive CD31, D2-40, and FLI-1 and negative cytokeratin and epithelial membrane antigen. With these findings, a diagnosis of epithelioid AS was made. This case highlights the rare occurrence of this condition in younger age group.
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Solitary extradigital glomangioma with thrombus presenting as a painful nodule p. 39
Indu Kumari, Swosti Mohanty, Uday S Khopkar, Priya Charak
DOI:10.4103/ijdpdd.ijdpdd_54_18  
Glomangioma, currently termed as glomuvenous malformation, is a rare type of venous malformation (VM) with a rim of glomus cells around the dilated vessels. This glomus cell lesion is not usually as painful as solid glomus tumor. Rarely, thrombus may be seen in the vessels like other VMs. A male with adult-onset extradigital glomangioma presented with a painful nodule with thrombus seen on histopathology. The thrombus was responsible for the tenderness of the lesion, and its presence confirms it to be a malformation than a tumor.
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A curious case of vanishing pigmented spots resembling lentigines p. 42
Meenakshi Batrani, Arshdeep , Asha Kubba, M Ramam
DOI:10.4103/ijdpdd.ijdpdd_39_18  
Exogenous pigmentation due to arthropods or coloring agents/dyes may be mistaken for melanocytic lesions. Dermoscopy is a useful tool for the evaluation of pigmented lesions. We discuss the dermoscopic and histopathological features in a case of pigmented spots mimicking lentigines caused by burrowing bug and review the pertinent literature on exogenous pigmentation.
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Amyloidosis cutis dyschromica: A rare dyschromic pigmentary disorder p. 45
Kuldeep Verma, Reena Kumari Sharma, Anchana Gulati, Mudita Gupta
DOI:10.4103/ijdpdd.ijdpdd_49_18  
Primary cutaneous amyloidosis (PCA) is the deposition of amyloid proteins in the skin without systemic involvement. Amyloidosis cutis dyschromica (ACD) is a rare variant of PCA with onset typically in early childhood or at a prepubertal age. It is more common in the Asian and Southeast Asian people. Clinically it manifests as asymptomatic diffuse hyperpigmentation interspersed with hypopigmented spots without papulation. Histologically, small foci of amyloid closely under the epidermis are seen. There are only few case reports in the literature of this rarer variant. We report a case of a 32-year-old male presenting as dyschromatosis with a prepubertal onset and histopathological evidence of intradermal deposits in the upper dermis which was confirmed on Congo red staining and hence was diagnosed as a case of ACD.
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Disseminated subcutaneous granuloma annulare in adult p. 48
Bhavana Ravindra Doshi, Vijaya V Sajjan, BS Manjunathswamy
DOI:10.4103/ijdpdd.ijdpdd_11_19  
Granuloma annulare (GA) is a common benign inflammatory dermatosis of unknown cause. The subcutaneous form of GA also known as pseudorheumatoid nodule is a relatively uncommon entity, more so in the adult age. We came across a middle-aged female with multiple or disseminated lesions of subcutaneous GA located at an unusual location such as the volar aspect of palms beside the relatively common sites such as elbow and forearm.
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LETTERS TO EDITOR Top

Generalized unilateral porokeratotic eccrine ostial and dermal duct nevus along the lines of blaschko: A rare entit p. 51
Abhishek Kumar Gupta, Ankita Agrawal, Kinjal Rambhiya, Meena Makhecha
DOI:10.4103/ijdpdd.ijdpdd_47_18  
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Extragenital lichen sclerosus et atrophicus mimicking mycosis fungoides histologically p. 53
Kinjal Deepak Rambhia, Ankita Agrawal, Meena Bhaskar Makhecha
DOI:10.4103/ijdpdd.ijdpdd_52_18  
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Granulomatous syphilis: An atypical presentation p. 55
Rashmi Sriram, Rajendra Okade, KM Prathima
DOI:10.4103/ijdpdd.ijdpdd_61_18  
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An unusual case of unilateral nevoid acanthosis nigricans with dense lichenoid infiltrate p. 57
Indu Kumari, Vidya Kharkar
DOI:10.4103/ijdpdd.ijdpdd_53_18  
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Dermoscopy of Bowen's Disease p. 60
Yasmeen Jabeen Bhat, Safia Bashir, Rohi Wani, Iffat Hassan
DOI:10.4103/ijdpdd.ijdpdd_73_18  
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Isolated annular genital lichen planus in a female p. 62
Ajeet Singh, Seema Rani, Arvind Kumar Ahuja
DOI:10.4103/ijdpdd.ijdpdd_45_18  
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Generalized eruptive histiocytosis in a child: A rare entity p. 64
Mahmood Dhahir Al-Mendalawi
DOI:10.4103/ijdpdd.ijdpdd_78_18  
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Generalized eruptive histiocytosis in a child: A rare entity p. 65
Chinmay Kar, Rabindranath Biswas, Sabyasachi Banerjee, Prodip Sarkar, Kaushik Shome, Kapil Dev Das
DOI:10.4103/ijdpdd.ijdpdd_79_18  
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Easy method for shipment of dermatopathology resources p. 66
Karalikkattil T Ashique, Feroze Kaliyadan
DOI:10.4103/ijdpdd.ijdpdd_33_18  
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