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  Most popular articles (Since April 03, 2014)

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Panniculitis: A dermatopathologist's perspective and approach to diagnosis
Parikshaa Gupta, Uma Nahar Saikia, Sandeep Arora, Dipankar De, Bishan Das Radotra
July-December 2016, 3(2):29-41
Panniculitis is the inflammation of subcutaneous fat. It poses a diagnostic challenge, both for the clinician as well as the histopathologist owing to its diverse etiologies, overlapping morphological features, and dynamic nature of the lesions. The standard protocol for histopathologic diagnosis is to examine deep skin biopsies after staining with hematoxylin and eosin. Sometimes, however, special stains are also needed to rule out varied etiologies. A thorough histopathologic examination in conjunction with appropriate clinical details is the key to identify different subtypes of panniculitis. In this review, we discuss the classification of panniculitis with salient histopathologic features of the subtypes in each category. We also present a diagnostic algorithm for arriving at a definitive histopathologic diagnosis of different panniculitis subtypes.
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Histopathological spectrum of lichen sclerosus Et atrophicus
Varsha Dalal, Manveen Kaur, Chandra Bhushan Rai, Avninder Singh, V Ramesh
January-June 2017, 4(1):8-13
Introduction: Lichen sclerosus (LS) et atrophicus is an inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology affecting skin and mucosa, especially the genital area. Clinically, its main features are whitish papules which converge to form plaques and atrophic patches. Histopathology of LS et atrophicus is characterized by the constellation of an atrophic epidermis with loss of rete ridges, some lymphocytes in the basal layer, a subepidermal band of sclerosis, and a lichenoid infiltrate of lymphocytes beneath that band is diagnostic of LS. Materials and Methods: Skin specimens from 25 patients with LS were collected from the hospital records for 5 years. The diagnosis of all cases was made on the basis of clinical morphology and histopathologic features. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, and Elastic-Van Gieson. Criteria evaluated included hyperkeratosis, epidermal atrophy, follicular plugging, basal cell vacuolation, vascular ectasia, hyalinosis, inflammatory infiltrate, dermal edema, and deep dermal fibrosis. Results and Conclusion: Of a total of 25 patients, 18 patients had extragenital (EG) LS and 7 had genital manifestations. Mean age of patients with EG was 28 years, and genital was 38 years. To summarize, the main histopathological findings seen in LS are essentially the same as reported in literature, namely, hyperkeratosis, epidermal atrophy, follicular plugging, basal cell vacuolation, vascular ectasia, hyalinosis, inflammatory infiltrate, dermal edema, and deep dermal fibrosis. Moreover, some interesting differences between the EG and genital forms of LS were seen. However, since the figures are too small to comment on, studies comprising larger series of patients are required to bring out a statistical significance.
  9,699 380 1
Histopathologic approach to cutaneous vasculitis
Rajalakshmi Tirumalae
January-June 2014, 1(1):2-6
Cutaneous vasculitis encompasses a varied clinicopathologic spectrum, some of them with grave systemic consequences. A skin biopsy is often part of the first-line investigations done in the workup of such patients. A pathologist confronted with a biopsy for vasculitis has to be cognisant of the variations in morphology of these lesions with the course of the disease, overlaps in clinical and histologic features, use of ancillary tests like direct immunofluorescence (DIF), and its limitations. This review outlines a practical histopathologic approach to cutaneous vasculitis and emphasizes features that help in differential diagnosis.
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Idiopathic scrotal calcinosis: A case series
Sainath K Andola, Shabnam Karangadan, Suresh Patil
July-December 2014, 1(2):86-89
Idiopathic calcinosis of the scrotum is a rare benign local condition, characterized by multiple, painless, hard scrotal nodules, in the absence of any systemic metabolic disorder. We report nine cases of this rare entity diagnosed over a five-year period (2009-2013). The patients' age ranged from 26 to 65 years (Mean 42 years). The majority presented with scrotal swellings (8/9) and were clinically diagnosed as sebaceous cysts (7/9). Two cases also gave history of white chalky discharge from the swelling. Associated features of right inguinal hernia and left hematocele were seen in two cases. Five cases presented with a solitary nodule, with the size ranging from 0.5 to 3 cm (Mean 1.89 cm). The histopathological examination revealed dermal calcified masses with prominent foreign body reaction. All cases underwent surgical excision and showed no recurrence in follow up. This case series attempts to create an awareness of this rare pathology, which has an obscure pathogenesis and is often misdiagnosed.
  7,310 384 1
Nonmelanoma skin cancers: An Indian perspective
Geeti Khullar, Uma Nahar Saikia, Dipankar De, Bishan Das Radotra
July-December 2014, 1(2):55-62
Nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs), which mainly include basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), are infrequent in the Indian subcontinent, compared with white skinned individuals. Although BCC in most cases arises de novo on sun-exposed sites, it may rarely develop in photoprotected areas and in the setting of certain risk factors. In contrast to BCC, SCC in dark skin has a tendency to develop in nonhealing ulcers, chronic scars, and inflammatory and infectious dermatoses. Histopathology is the gold standard in confirming the diagnosis and determining the prognosis. As the existing literature on NMSCs in India is limited mostly to case reports and few reviews only, this article is an attempt to create an awareness regarding the premalignant potential of an expanding list of cutaneous lesions, which would help in timely diagnosis and prompt treatment of NMSCs.
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Epidermal reaction patterns
Aanchal Panth, M Ramam
January-June 2015, 2(1):1-7
Changes in the epidermis serve as important histopathological clues to the diagnosis of skin disorders. These peculiar changes are referred to as epidermal reaction patterns. Certain epidermal reaction patterns such as acantholytic dyskeratosis, epidermolytic hyperkeratosis, cornoid lamellae and papillomatosis point towards a specific diagnosis and hence it is important to recognise them. In this article, we have reviewed the histopathological appearance of these reaction patterns as well as their etiology and the conditions in which they are seen.
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Epithelioid cell granuloma
Deepika Yadav, M Ramam
January-June 2018, 5(1):7-18
In this review, we use the term epithelioid cell granuloma for granulomas that show focal collections of epithelioid histiocytes in the absence of additional changes such as acute inflammatory cells and altered collagen or foreign material. Giant cells, lymphocytes, and histiocytes are often seen in these granulomas. Various features are useful in recognizing the specific cause of an epithelioid cell granuloma and include coalescence or discreteness of granulomas, presence and type of necrosis, inclusion bodies within giant cells, and identification of organisms, but the arrangement of granulomas within the dermis may be the single most important feature. Leprosy shows well-circumscribed, oval, oblong, and curvilinear epithelioid cell granulomas in a perivascular and peri-appendageal location involving superficial and deep dermis with minimal interstitial spill. Cutaneous tuberculosis is recognized by a lichenoid granulomatous pattern comprising a dense upper dermal infiltrate with granulomas that impinge on the overlying acanthotic epidermis accompanied by more localized, nodular granulomas in the deep dermis. Sarcoidosis has closely huddled yet discrete granulomas that have a paucity of lymphocytes. Other patterns and clues include follicular/perifollicular granulomas in lichen scrofulosorum and granulomatous rosacea, prominent necrosis in lupus miliaris disseminatus faciei, branching granulomas with plasma cells in granulomatous secondary syphilis, granulomatous lobular panniculitis with vasculitis in erythema induratum, messy granulomas in cutaneous leishmaniasis, and granulomas extending to the muscles in granulomatous cheilitis/Melkersson–Rosenthal syndrome. Histopathological findings, in combination with clinical and laboratory information, can lead to a specific diagnosis in the majority of cases.
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An overview of suppurative granuloma
Mary Thomas, Raghavendra Rao, G Nanda Kumar
January-June 2018, 5(1):19-26
Suppurative granulomatous inflammation is a common histopathological reaction pattern that is encountered in the tropical countries including India. It occurs usually due to infective etiology and identification of the causative pathogen is crucial to initiate appropriate treatment. In this review article, we discuss about certain common and uncommon condition which may present with this reaction pattern.
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Verrucous hyperplasia of amputation stump
Amit Kumar Dhawan, Chander Grover, Kavita Bisherwal, Vinod Kumar Arora, Reena Tomar
January-June 2015, 2(1):23-24
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Picrosirius red staining assessment of collagen after dermal roller application: A minimally invasive percutaneous collagen induction therapy
Fatma El-Zahraa Salah El-Deen Yassin, Reham Ezz El-Dawela, Mohammad Abel Kerim
July-December 2014, 1(2):68-74
Background: Percutaneous collagen induction (PCI) through dermal roller breaks old collagen strands, promotes removal of damaged collagen and induces more collagen formation. Collagen fibers can be assessed by traditional stains or by polarized light assessment of Picrosirius red stain. Objective: The purpose of the current study is the clinical and histopathological evaluation of percutaneous collagen formation in atrophic acne scars after dermal roller application. Patients and Methods: Total study duration was 26 weeks in which 12 patients received seven sessions of PCI at 3-weeks interval, 3 mm punch biopsy specimens of scars were obtained before and after treatment (at 18 and 26 weeks). Microscopic examination of pre and post operative biopsies were done, using routine stains and Picrosirius red stain. Results: PCI induced notable improvement in the appearance of acne scars with significant reduction in the score from 123.3 ± 24.5 to 74.16 ± 16.49 (P = 0.00) after 26 weeks. Polarized light assessment of Picrosirius red stain clarified the gradual replacement of old thick orange-red birefringent collagen fibers by newly synthesized thin green-yellow birefringent ones postoperatively. Conclusion: Skin needling is a simple and minimally invasive procedure. The polarized light assessment of Picrosirius red stain clarified the change of the optical properties of collagen fibers according to the maturation process.
  4,177 412 1
Subcutaneous granuloma annulare in a child: A rare presentation
Kumar Parimalam, Jayakar Thomas
January-June 2014, 1(1):39-41
We present a rare case of subcutaneous granuloma annulare (SGA) of the palm in a 3-year-old girl disappearing on removal of a SGA of the dorsum of foot. Though GA is more common in children, subcutaneous type is rare and poses diagnostic difficulty. Very few cases of SGA over the palm have so far been reported. Disappearance of SGA of the palm following removal of a nodule from the foot represents remote reverse Koebner's phenomenon.
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Preparing for a dermatopathology quiz
Biju Vasudevan, Manas Chatterjee, Nikhil Moorchung, Shekar Neema
July-December 2014, 1(2):63-67
Dermatopathology is one of the key aspects in dermatological diagnosis and is of immense value to the practicing dermatologist as well as residents pursuing dermatology as a career. It is a visual medium of understanding the subject, and is therefore ideal to be tested similarly. Dermatopathology quiz has become a part and parcel of most scientific deliberations, and is therefore an essential requirement of the postgraduate curriculum. Preparing for a dermatopathology quiz is tougher than preparing for a normal clinical quiz because of the lesser importance given for it in the syllabus of postgraduation and also due to the lack of resources either in getting microscopic sessions arranged or due to lack of flair of the subject compared to cosmetology or dermatosurgery. This review was done with the purpose of educating both the students and quizmasters as to how to prepare for a dermatopathology quiz. It is a unique proposal and, therefore, is gathered from more of personal experience, experience gained from watching quizzes conducted by experienced quizmasters, and also from the advice gained from masters of the subject in relation to the quiz.
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Necrobiotic granuloma: An update
Achyut Pokharel, Isha Poudel Koirala
January-June 2018, 5(1):27-33
Granulomatous disorders comprise a large family sharing the common histological denominator of granuloma formation. Collagenolytic or necrobiotic granuloma is one in which a granulomatous infiltrate develops around a central area of altered collagen and elastic fibers. The altered fibers exhibit new staining patterns, becoming either more basophilic which gives blue appearance (“blue granuloma”) or eosinophilic giving red appearance (“red granuloma”). Conditions which exhibit blue granuloma include granuloma annulare, Wegener's granulomatosis, and rheumatoid vasculitis, whereas red granulomas include necrobiosis lipoidica, necrobiosis xanthogranuloma, rheumatoid nodules, Churg-Strauss syndrome, and eosinophilic cellulitis (Well's syndrome).
  3,826 242 -
Metastatic malignant subungal melanoma: Importance of FNAC
Radhika Punshi Nandwani, Murali Gopala Krishnan, Sanjay Kumar Totade
January-June 2014, 1(1):35-38
Subungual melanoma is a rare type of skin cancer. It is an uncommon form of acral lentiginous melanoma. Approximately 85% of cases are misdiagnosed initially, and it is generally associated with a poor prognosis. Herein, we describe a case of metastatic subungal melanoma to the axillary lymph node in a 45-year-old male. Diagnosis of metastasis was made based on cytology, where the clinicians were guided to search for primary. This case report highlights the role of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of this entity to draw the attention of the reader to the possible underreporting of melanoma because of a variant that evades diagnosis and our reluctance to think about its existence.
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Association of the cornoid lamella with the follicular infundibulum and the acrosyringium: A histological analysis
Mary Thomas, Uday S Khopkar
January-June 2014, 1(1):21-24
Background: The classical histological feature of porokeratosis (PK) is the cornoid lamella. The occurrence of the cornoid lamella within the follicular infundibulum and the acrosyringium is believed to be primarily associated with specific types of PK, for example, follicular PK, porokeratotic eccrine and hair follicle nevus. We looked for such occurrence in all cases of PK. Objective: We attempted to evaluate the incidence of follicular and acrosyringeal involvement in the various clinical types of PK in our population and describe the histological features of the same. Materials and Methods: Case records in 2011 were reviewed for patients diagnosed with PK based on clinicopathological correlation. The histology was reevaluated and follicular or acrosyringeal involvement was noted. Results: In total, biopsies from 28 lesions from 16 patients were reviewed. Nine (32%) lesions were found to have follicular involvement and 12 (42%) were found to have acrosyringeal involvement on histopathology. Of these, 61% of these patients were clinically diagnosed as PK of Mibelli (PM), 14% as disseminated superficial actinic PK (DSAP), 13% as linear PK (LP), 7% cases of follicular PK (FP), and 7% as genital PK. Conclusions: Follicular and acrosyringeal involvement in PK is more frequent than expected. Though follicular PK has been described as a distinct entity, there is no correlation between the clinical subtype and the involvement of the follicular infundibulum and acrosyringium. This involvement may occur as an incidental finding and hence, histological delineation of follicular or acrosyringeal PK as distinct entities without appropriate clinical correlation appears unjustified.
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Acquired cutaneous perforating disorders: Clues to diagnosis by silhouette
Asha Kubba, Meenakshi Batrani, Tanvi Pal
July-December 2016, 3(2):42-44
Inflammatory dermatoses are interpreted by pattern recognition. Primary perforating disorders including reactive perforating collagenosis, elastosis perforans serpiginosa, perforating folliculitis, and Kyrle's disease show clinical and histopathological overlap. This article highlights the importance of architectural based analysis by “silhouette” observed under scanning magnification for diagnosis of primary perforating disorders.
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Role of histochemical stains in differentiating hemangioma and vascular malformation
Ruchir Jitendra Patel, Archana Chirag Buch, Shirish S Chandanwale, Harsh Kumar
January-June 2016, 3(1):1-6
Background: Benign vascular lesions such as vascular malformation and hemangioma at times pose difficulty in diagnosis both for clinicians and pathologists. Vascular malformations are difficult to treat while hemangiomas resolve spontaneously in most instances. There are instances when vascular malformations, especially arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) have been misdiagnosed as hemangiomas and vice-versa. Clinical and radiological correlation with histopathological confirmation of these anomalies is important for the management of these lesionsAim: The aim was to study the histological characteristics of hemangiomas and vascular malformations and to study the utility of histochemical stains in their diagnosis. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively studied fifty cases retrieved from the records of Department of Pathology which were diagnosed as hemangioma (n=32) and vascular malformation (n=18) on Hematoxylin and Eosin (H and E) stain over a period of 18 months. The cases were analyzed based on findings of histochemical stains such as Verhoeff-van Gieson (VVG), Masson's trichrome (MT), and toluidine blue. Results: After reviewing all the cases with the use of histochemical stains, two of the three cases originally diagnosed as hemangioma turned out to be AVM and one to be venous malformation. An increased number of intra-lesional nerves were found in 16 of 19 cases of AVM and in both cases of venous and lymphatic malformation. Hemangiomas did not show increase in nerve bundles. Mast cells were found to be increased in proliferating hemangiomas and pyogenic granulomas as compared to AVMs. Conclusion: Hemangiomas and vascular malformations should be clearly differentiated to reduce the risk of treatment failure and recurrence. With the use of histochemical stains such as VVG, MT and toluidine blue, the diagnostic difficulty can be reduced and definitive diagnosis is possible.
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Accuracy and reliability of Tzanck test compared to histopathology for diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma
Vivek Kumar Dey, Manasi Thawani, Neha Dubey
January-June 2015, 2(1):8-13
Background: Histopathology is considered the gold standard for diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) but is time consuming and needs expertise to make a correct diagnosis. On the other hand, Tzanck test is a simple, easy, inexpensive and rapid test which uses exfoliative cytology to make a diagnosis. Objective: To compare the results of Tzanck test with histopathology in the diagnosis of BCC and to evaluate the diagnostic reliability and accuracy of Tzanck test in BCC. Materials and Method: Twenty-six patients with clinical suspicion of BCC were recruited. Samples for Tzanck test and histopathology were taken and diagnoses made independently. Results of Tzanck test were compared with histopathology. Results: Twenty-three cases were histopathologically proved to be BCC. Tzanck test correlated in 12 cases of BCC and could exclude all three non-BCC lesions. In 11 cases it failed to diagnose BCC. The sensitivity and specificity of Tzanck test were 52.2% and 100%, respectively, and positive and negative predictive values were 100% and 21.4%. Conclusion: Tzanck test can be recommended for initial, rapid evaluation of a clinically diagnosed case of BCC. Under experienced hands, it reliably confirms BCC. The limitation is low negative predictive value. Since it does not give information about subtypes of BCC which is of great value in therapeutic planning, histopathological confirmation is mandatory.
  3,329 305 1
A case of benign lichenoid keratosis
Amita Mhatre, Nitin Nadkarni, Sharmila Patil, Shweta Agarwal
July-December 2015, 2(2):49-51
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Dermoscopy of non-melanocytic and pink tumors in brown skin: A descriptive study
Balachandra S Ankad, Punit S Sakhare, Mural H Prabhu
July-December 2017, 4(2):41-51
Introduction: Skin tumors are classified as melanocytic and non-melanocytic based on presence of melanocytes and melanin pigment in the tumor. Dermoscopy, being a non-invasive technique, is a proven method in recognizing the non-melanocytic and pink tumors by showing specific patterns. In Indian subcontinent, reports on dermoscopy of non-melanocytic and pink tumors are confined only to case reports. Authors studied dermoscopic features of non-melanocytic and pink skin tumors in dermoscopy. Materials and Methods: Study was carried in a tertiary hospital attached to S.Nijalingappa Medical College, Bagalkot, between January and December 2016. It was a descriptive study. Patients with signs of non-melanocytic and pink tumors were selected. Demographic data, such as age, gender, and clinical variables in terms of site of tumor and duration were documented. Manual DermLite 3 and videodermoscopy were employed. Both polarized and non-polarized versions were used for examination. Results: Totally 128 patients were present with 75 females and 61 males. Study included pyogenic granuloma (39), squamous cell carcinoma (4), basal cell carcinoma (30), keratoacanthoma (3), seborrheic keratosis (15), trichoepithelioma (2), syringoma (5), apocrine hydrocystoma (2), fibrokeratoma (5), dermatofibroma (6), epidermal cyst (7), sebaceous hyperplasia (2), Bowen's disease (1), steatocystoma multiplex (1), Lymphangioma circumscriptum (3) and milia (3). Numbers in parenthesis indicate number of patients. Conclusion: Dermoscopy of non-melanocytic and pink tumors demonstrates characteristic patterns which vary from white, yellow, brown to blue and red color depending on presence of keratin and hemoglobin. Patterns differ based on the type skin color. Recognition of distinctive vascular and keratin related pattern is of great help in the diagnosis of skin tumors. To the best our knowledge, this is first report of dermoscopy of non-melanocytic and pink tumors on a larger scale from Indian subcontinent.
  3,136 264 -
A cross-sectional study of clinical, histopathological and direct immmunofluorescence diagnosis in autoimmune bullous diseases
Anchal Jindal, Rushikesh Shah, Neela Patel, Krina Patel, Rupal P Mehta, Jigna P Barot
January-June 2014, 1(1):25-31
Background: Immunobullous diseases are morphologically heterogeneous and the differentiation between various subtypes is essential for proper treatment and prognosis. Aim of our study was to analyze and correlate clinical, histopathological and immunofluorescence findings in autoimmune bullous diseases. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was done over a period of two years (2010-2012) after approval of the ethics committee. Sixty patients, who met the inclusion criteria of immunobullous disease, were included in the study. Skin biopsy for histopathology and direct immunofluorescence (DIF) examination was taken. DIF using salt-split technique was done in few of the cases. The final diagnosis was based on clinical, histopathology and DIF findings. Pearson's coefficient of correlation (r) was calculated. Statistical Analysis was done using Epi info version. 7.0. Results: Fifty-three cases with clinical diagnosis of autoimmune bullous diseases were evaluated. In 88.6% of cases, histopathology diagnosis was consistent with clinical diagnosis and in 75.5% of cases, DIF findings were consistent with clinical diagnosis. A positive relation was seen between clinical and DIF findings with r = 0.65 and between histopathology and DIF findings with r = 0.75. DIF positivity was seen in 100% cases of bullous pemphigoid (BP) and pemphigus foliaceous and 94.7% cases of pemphigus vulgaris, which was statistically significant with p < 0.05. In DIF salt-split test, deposition was seen on roof of blister in BP whereas on floor in epidermolysis bullosa acquisita. Conclusion: Our study provides evidence-based guidance for the diagnosis and classification of various immunobullous disorders. DIF test should be done in conjunction with histopathology for definitive diagnosis and to minimize both: False-positive and false-negative results.
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Cutaneous lymphomas: An update
Ashok Singh, Sudheer Arava, MK Singh
January-June 2014, 1(1):7-16
Cutaneous lymphomas are heterogeneous and distinct entities which have been in controversy since the time of conception. WHO EORTC defined them as distinct pathological entity compared to the nodal counterpart. They are defined as lymphomas having primary cutaneous presentation without any systemic involvement. As such the diagnosis of cutaneous lymphomas is a diagnosis of exclusion. These lymphomas are distinct from the nodal lymphomas in their presentation, behaviour and prognosis. These lymphomas have been divided into B cell and T cell type based on the presence of predominance of atypical lymphocytes of B or T lineage. The most common cutaneous lymphomas are T cell immunophenotype, and Mycosis fungoides constitutes the majority of cutaneous lymphomas. Cutaneous lymphomas needs to be differentiated from pseudolymphomas which are benign proliferation of lymphoid cells mimicking lymphomas and mostly have a benign course
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Squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma: A diagnostic challenge
Jayashree Krishnamurthy, Lopa Mudra Kakoti, Ravishankar Nagaraj
July-December 2014, 1(2):90-93
Squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma (SEDC) is a rare primary cutaneous tumor that exhibits both squamous and adnexal ductal differentiation. We report a case of SEDC presenting as multiple nodules on the scalp of a 58-year-old man. Histopathological examination of the excised lesion showed a tumor in the dermis composed of duct-like structures that represented the eccrine component and squamoid cells in nests and in an infiltrating pattern. Immunohistochemical (IHC) positivity for cytokeratin 5/6, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), and p63 confirmed the squamoid, ductal, and primary cutaneous nature, respectively, and differentiated it from eccrine poroma, microcystic adnexal carcinoma, and porocarcinoma with squamous differentiation. With a demonstrated invasive potential, recurrent nature, and ambiguous metastatic potential, Mohs micrographic surgery, an established and successful, yet tissue-sparing surgical modality with lower recurrence rate, is the recommended treatment of choice and a close follow-up of these patients is suggested for further experiences of this tumor.
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Multiple angiokeratomas of Fordyce: Lesions at an unusual site causing a diagnostic dilemma
Sharmila Dudani, Rajendra Maskara
January-June 2014, 1(1):46-48
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Diagnostic utility of onychoscopy: Review of literature
Chander Grover, Deepak Jakhar
July-December 2017, 4(2):31-40
Onychoscopy is being increasingly used as a diagnostic modality for various nail diseases. Initial research had focused mainly on nail pigmentation and nailfold capillaroscopy; however, it is now being evaluated in various infectious and inflammatory nail disorders as well. The present review aims to summarize current knowledge about onychoscopic diagnostic criteria in nail diseases. The best level of evidence attached to each indication is mentioned to answer the pertinent question: How much can we rely on onychoscopy in confirming diagnosis of nail disease?
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