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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 57-63

Leukemia cutis: A study from a tertiary care hospital in North India


1 Department of Histopathology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
2 Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
3 Department of Hematopathology, Venereology and Leprology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Uma Nahar Saikia
Department of Histopathology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Sector 12, Chandigarh - 160 012
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijdpdd.ijdpdd_33_20

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Background/Objectives: Only anecdotal case reports or small case series have attempted to study the histomorphology patterns of leukemic infiltration. This study explored the possible association of leukemia cutis with, temporal course of disease, subtypes of leukemia, blast count, total leukocyte count, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, and histopathological patterns. Materials and Methods: Clinical and laboratory data were retrieved from the hospital information system. Selected cases were reviewed by two pathologists. Data in terms of demographics, clinical presentation, bone marrow findings, immunophenotype, and temporal course were recorded where available. Results: Twenty-three diagnosed cases of leukemia cutis were reported during the study period. There was no gender predilection with a wide age range (8–82 years). No particular trend was noted in relation to total leukocyte or bone marrow blast count. Common skin manifestations included multiple erythematous papular eruptions, frequently involving the skin of the limbs. All cases showed a consistently high serum LDH level. 11/23 (48%) showed cutaneous manifestation of undiagnosed leukemia or indicated worsening in a diagnosed case. The histological patterns varied from perivascular to diffuse dermal interstitial infiltration. In addition, subtle changes were seen in the form of fibrosis, thrombosis, and epidermotropism in 12%–50% of cases. The judicious use of a panel of immunohistochemistry was vital to establish a diagnosis. Conclusions: Leukemia cutis is a diagnostic challenge on histopathology due to lack of any specific pattern in absence of a clinical suspicion. Its diagnosis may be an indicator of undiagnosed leukemia or worsening in an already known case of leukemia.


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