Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 
  • Users Online: 200
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page

 Table of Contents  
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 99-100

Verrucous hemangioma: Importance of a deeper biopsy

1 Department of Dermatology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Pathology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India

Date of Web Publication18-Dec-2014

Correspondence Address:
Shricharith Shetty
Department of Dermatology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2349-6029.147319

Rights and Permissions

How to cite this article:
Shetty S, Geetha V, Rao R, Pai S. Verrucous hemangioma: Importance of a deeper biopsy. Indian J Dermatopathol Diagn Dermatol 2014;1:99-100

How to cite this URL:
Shetty S, Geetha V, Rao R, Pai S. Verrucous hemangioma: Importance of a deeper biopsy. Indian J Dermatopathol Diagn Dermatol [serial online] 2014 [cited 2022 Jun 26];1:99-100. Available from: https://www.ijdpdd.com/text.asp?2014/1/2/99/147319


Verrucous hemangioma is a rare congenital vascular anomaly that presents at birth or in early childhood. It is commonly unilateral and localized to the lower extremities. It presents as a warty, bluish-purple plaque, with intermittent oozing or bleeding. Early on, the lesions are nonkeratotic, soft, and bluish red, but in time they become increasingly hyperkeratotic. Verrucous hemangioma does not involute spontaneously and can persist after incomplete excision. [1] Often misdiagnosed clinically as angiokeratoma, it is the histopathology that helps to differentiate these two conditions. We herein report a case of verrucous hemangioma localized to the leg, emphasizing the importance of taking a deeper skin biopsy during evaluation.

A 14-year-old male presented with a complaint of a brownish growth over his left foot, since the age of three years. It had enlarged gradually over time and bled after minor trauma, occasionally, although it was not painful. Physical examination revealed a solitary hyperpigmented, verrucous plaque measuring 4 × 7 cm, over the dorsum of the left foot, with surrounding hyperpigmentation [Figure 1]. Part of the lesion was biopsied elsewhere and was reported as angiokeratoma. A repeat biopsy was sought. Adequate tissue sample was obtained by an incisional biopsy for histopathological examination. The biopsy revealed an epidermis showing verruciform proliferation with hyper- and parakeratosis, irregular acanthosis, and papillomatosis. Ectatic dilated channels, some with luminal red blood cells and thrombi were seen in the papillary dermis. The dermis and subcutis showed proliferating thin-walled vascular channels lined by flattened endothelial cells, with a pseudo-infiltrative pattern and focal lobular configuration [Figure 2]. The features were suggestive of verrucous hemangioma. The lesion was surgically excised and a skin graft from the thigh was placed. The patient was followed up for eight months and there was no sign of recurrence.
Figure 1: Hyperpigmented verrucous plaque over the left foot

Click here to view
Figure 2: (a) Raised hyperkeratotic lesion, with dermis showing congested capillaries. (H and E, ×25) (b)Angiokeratoma-like appearance of the vessels in the papillary dermis. (H and E, ×200) (c) Deep dermal component of verrucous haemangioma. (H and E, ×200) (d) Lobular configuration of the component in the subcutis. (H and E, ×200)

Click here to view

In 1937, Halter first used the term 'Verrucous hemangioma' to describe the case of a 16-year-old boy presenting with a linear, purpuric cluster of plaques, extending from the right buttock to the toes. [1] Imperial and Helwig studied 21 patients with verrucous hemangioma and considered these lesions to be variants of capillary malformations that secondarily develop reactive epidermal acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, and parakeratosis. [2] It is also known by various other names, including, angiokeratoma circumscriptum naeviforme, angiokeratoma circumscriptum, angiokeratoma corporis naeviforme, and keratotic hemangioma. [2],[3],[4] Thus, verrucous hemangioma has frequently been mistakenly classified as a variety of angiokeratoma. The histological appearance closely resembles an angiokeratoma, as both lesions show vascular spaces just beneath a papillomatosis and hyperkeratotic epidermis. [4] However, in contrast to angiokeratoma, the vascular spaces in verrucous hemangioma also involve the lower dermis and subcutaneous tissues. [5] Verrucous hemangiomas show cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for the GLUT1 protein within the endothelial cells, lining the lesional vascular structures, whereas, angiokeratoma are always negative for GLUT1. [6],[7] In contrast to angiokeratoma, use of cryotherapy, electrocautery, and laser in the treatment of verrucous hemangioma has always resulted in failure to control the disease, and adequate surgical excision is essential to prevent recurrence. Thus, it is of utmost importance to take a deeper skin biopsy with an adequate tissue sample, to differentiate the two closely resembling entities, verrucous hemangioma and angiokeratoma, as the treatment and prognosis varies for both.

  References Top

Halter K. Haemangioma verrucosum mit Osteoatrophie. Dermatol Z 1937;75:271-9.  Back to cited text no. 1
Imperial R, Helwig EB. Verrucous hemangioma. A clinicopathologic study of 21 cases. Arch Dermatol 1967;96:247-53.  Back to cited text no. 2
Rupani AB, Madiwale CV, Vaideeswar P. Images in pathology: Verrucous haemangioma. J Postgrad Med 2000;46:132-3.  Back to cited text no. 3
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
Calduch L, Ortega C, Navarro V, Martínez E, Molina I, Jordá E. Verrucous hemangioma: Report of two cases and review of the literature. Pediatr Dermatol 2000;17:213-7.  Back to cited text no. 4
Calonje E. Vascular tumours: Tumours and tumours like conditions of blood vessels and lymphatics. In: Elder DE, Elenitsas R, Johnson BL, Murphy GF, Xu X, editors. Lever's Histopathology of the Skin. 10 th ed. Philadelphia, USA: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2009. p. 1007-56.  Back to cited text no. 5
Trindade F, Torrelo A, Requena L, Tellechea O, Del Pozo J, Sacristán F, et al. An immunohistochemical study of verrucous hemangiomas. J Cutan Pathol 2013;40:472-6.  Back to cited text no. 6
Tennant LB, Mulliken JB, Perez-Atayde AR, Kozakewich HP. Verrucous hemangioma revisited. Pediatr Dermatol 2006;23:208-15.  Back to cited text no. 7


  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]


Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

  In this article
Article Figures

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded305    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal